Markup languages are designed to process, define and present text. The language specifies the code for data formatting, both the layout and style within a text file.
The code used to specify the data formatting are known as tags.
Some other major markup languages include:
(1) Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML)
(2) HyperText Markup Language (HTML)
(3) Extensible Markup Language (XML)
(4) Generalized Markup Language (GML)
Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML)
SGML is metalanguage, originally created by IBM and standardize in 1986 by ISO.
It is used to create other languages including HTML& xHTML.
It is one of the most powerful languages that describe document information which seems very difficult to learn.
Let’s look up to three mostly used markup languages :
HTML — HyperText Markup Language
HyperText Markup Language is the primary language of the Web developer. It may be the only markup language you use at work.
HTML defines the way that images, multimedia, text are displayed in web browsers.
This language includes elements to connect your hypertext and make your web documents interactive.
HTML is a defined standard markup language. It is based upon Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML).
It is a language that uses tags to define the structure of your text. Elements and tags are defined by the < and > characters.
The newest numbered version of HTML is HTML5. This version added more features into HTML and removed the strictness imposed by xHTML.
XML — eXtensible Markup Language
The eXtensible Markup Language is the language that another version of HTML is based on Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML).
It is less strict than SGML and more strict than plain HTML. XML provides the extensibility to create various different languages.
xHTML — eXtended HyperText Markup Language
There aren’t a lot of major differences between HTML and XHTML, but some of are below :
xHTML is written in lower case. While HTML tags can be written in UPPER case, mixed case, or lower case.
All xHTML elements must have an end tag. Elements with only one tag, such as and need a closing slash (/) at the end of the tag.
xHTML requires that tags are nested correctly. If you open a bold (<b>) element and then an italics (<i>) element, you must close the italics element (</i>) first then you close the bold (</b>).
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